Magistrates have to be vigilant before issuing summons or taking cognizance of an offence


Supreme Court in the matter of Mahender Singh Dhoni Vs. Yerraguntla Shyamsundar; Transfer Petition (Criminal) no. 23 of 2016 cautioned the magistrates who have been conferred with the power of taking cognizance and issuing summons are required to carefully scrutinize whether the allegations made in the complaint meet the basic ingredients of the offence; whether the concept of territorial jurisdiction is satisfied; and whether the accused is really required to be summoned.

For quashing of proceedings against a Director u/s 138/141 of the Act it must be shown that no offence is made out against him and quashing is not to be granted merely on asking #indianlaws


When in view of the basic averment process is issued, the complaint must proceed against the Directors. But, if any Director of a company wants the process to be quashed by filing a petition under Section 482 of the Code on the ground that only a bald averment is made in the complaint and that he is really not concerned with the issuance of the cheque, he must in order to persuade the High Court to quash the process either furnish some sterling incontrovertible material or acceptable circumstances to substantiate his contention. He must make out a case that making him stand the trial would be an abuse of process of court. He cannot get the complaint quashed merely on the ground that apart from the basic averment no particulars are given in the complaint about his role, because ordinarily the basic averment would be sufficient to send him to trial and it could be argued that his further role could be brought out in the trial.

Giving of dowry and traditional presents does not always raise a presumption that it’s custody is with in-laws #indianlaws


The Court clarified that giving of dowry and the traditional presents at or about the time of wedding does not in any way raise a presumption that such a property was thereby entrusted and put under the dominion of the parents-in-law of the bride or other close relations so as to attract ingredients of Section 6 of the Dowry Prohibition Act. In respect of ‘stridhana articles’ given to the bride, one has to take into consideration the common practice that these articles are sent along with the bride to her matrimonial house and used by her in her matrimonial house. Accordingly, it could not be held that dowry was given to groom’s parents and sisters who were living separately from the couple and they were duty bound to return the same to the deceased.

In the absence of specific allegations of entrustment of the dowry amount and articles to the in-laws, continuation of criminal proceeding against Appellants was held to be unjust and improper. 

The court further observed that power under Section 482 Cr.P.C. should be sparingly exercised in rare cases. When a prosecution at the initial stage is asked to be quashed, the test to be applied by the Court is to determine as to whether the uncontroverted allegations as made in the complaint prima facie establish the offence. The Court must take into consideration any special feature which appears in a particular case to consider whether it is expedient and in the interest of justice to permit a prosecution to continue.


Complaint alleging breach of trust and cheating must convincingly prove entrustment and deception #indianlaws


To constitute an offence punishable under Section 406 IPC, the essential ingredient is the “entrustment” of the property.  It is only after entrustment is shown, it can be said that there was criminal breach of trust. To constitute an offence punishable under Section 409 IPC, apart from entrustment, it is an essential requirement that it should be shown that the accused has acted in the capacity of a public servant, banker, merchant, factor, broker, attorney or agent.

High Court can quash certain non-compoundable offence under Section 482 Cr P C


Criminal cases having overwhelmingly and pre-dominatingly civil favour stand on different footing for the purposes of quashing, particularly the offences arising from commercial, financial, mercantile, civil, partnership or such like transactions or the offences arising out of matrimony relating to dowry, etc. or the family disputes where the wrong is basically private or personal in nature and the parties have resolved their entire dispute.

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